After over two and a half years in various stages of development, I am happy to somewhat “officially” announce a MATLAB package that I have been developing: QETLAB (Quantum Entanglement Theory LABoratory). This announcement is completely arbitrary, since people started finding QETLAB via Google about a year ago, and a handful of papers have made use of it already, but I figured that I should at least acknowledge its existence myself at some point. I’ll no doubt be writing some posts in the near future that highlight some of its more advanced features, but I will give a brief run-down of what it’s about here.
First off, QETLAB has a variety of functions for dealing with “simple” things like tensor products, Schmidt decompositions, random pure and mixed states, applying superoperators to quantum states, computing Choi matrices and Kraus operators, and so on, which are fairly standard daily tasks for quantum information theorists. These sorts of functions are somewhat standard, and are also found in a few other MATLAB packages (such as Toby Cubitt’s nice Quantinf package and Géza Tóth’s QUBIT4MATLAB package), so I won’t really spend any time discussing them here.
Mixed State Separability
The “motivating problem” for QETLAB is the separability problem, which asks us to (efficiently / operationally / practically) determine whether a given mixed quantum state is separable or entangled. The (by far) most well-known tool for this job is the positive partial transpose (PPT) criterion, which says that every separable state remains positive semidefinite when the partial transpose map is applied to it. However, this is just a quick-and-dirty one-way test, and going beyond it is much more difficult.
The QETLAB function that tries to solve this problem is the IsSeparable function, which goes through several separability criteria in an attempt to prove the given state separable or entangled, and provides a journal reference to the paper that contains the separability criteria that works (if one was found).
As an example, consider the “tiles” state, introduced in , which is an example of a quantum state that is entangled, but is not detected by the simple PPT test for entanglement. We can construct this state using QETLAB’s UPB function, which lets the user easily construct a wide variety of unextendible product bases, and then verify its entanglement as follows:
>> u = UPB('Tiles'); % generates the "Tiles" UPB >> rho = eye(9) - u*u'; % rho is the projection onto the orthogonal complement of the UPB >> rho = rho/trace(rho); % we are now done constructing the bound entangled state >> IsSeparable(rho) Determined to be entangled via the realignment criterion. Reference: K. Chen and L.-A. Wu. A matrix realignment method for recognizing entanglement. Quantum Inf. Comput., 3:193-202, 2003. ans = 0
And of course more advanced tests for entanglement, such as those based on symmetric extensions, are also checked. Generally, quick and easy tests are done first, and slow but powerful tests are only performed if the script has difficulty finding an answer.
Alternatively, if you want to check individual tests for entanglement yourself, you can do that too, as there are stand-alone functions for the partial transpose, the realignment criterion, the Choi map (a specific positive map in 3-dimensional systems), symmetric extensions, and so on.
Symmetry of Subsystems
One problem that I’ve come across repeatedly in my work is the need for robust functions relating to permuting quantum systems that have been tensored together, and dealing with the symmetric and antisymmetric subspaces (and indeed, this type of thing is quite common in quantum information theory). Some very basic functionality of this type has been provided in other MATLAB packages, but it has never been as comprehensive as I would have liked. For example, QUBIT4MATLAB has a function that is capable of computing the symmetric projection on two systems, or on an arbitrary number of 2- or 3-dimensional systems, but not on an arbitrary number of systems of any dimension. QETLAB’s SymmetricProjection function fills this gap.
Similarly, there are functions for computing the antisymmetric projection, for permuting different subsystems, and for constructing the unitary swap operator that implements this permutation.
Nonlocality and Bell Inequalities
QETLAB also has a set of functions for dealing with quantum non-locality and Bell inequalities. For example, consider the CHSH inequality, which says that if and are -valued measurement settings, then the following inequality holds in classical physics (where denotes expectation):
However, in quantum-mechanical settings, this inequality can be violated, and the quantity on the left can take on a value as large as (this is Tsirelson’s bound). Finally, in no-signalling theories, the quantity on the left can take on a value as large as .
All three of these quantities can be easily computed in QETLAB via the BellInequalityMax function:
>> coeffs = [1 1;1 -1]; % coefficients of the terms <A_iB_j> in the Bell inequality >> a_coe = [0 0]; % coefficients of <A_i> in the Bell inequality >> b_coe = [0 0]; % coefficients of <B_i> in the Bell inequality >> a_val = [-1 1]; % values of the A_i measurements >> b_val = [-1 1]; % values of the B_i measurements >> BellInequalityMax(coeffs, a_coe, b_coe, a_val, b_val, 'classical') ans = 2 >> BellInequalityMax(coeffs, a_coe, b_coe, a_val, b_val, 'quantum') ans = 2.8284 >> BellInequalityMax(coeffs, a_coe, b_coe, a_val, b_val, 'nosignal') ans = 4.0000
The classical value of the Bell inequality is computed simply by brute force, and the no-signalling value is computed via a linear program. However, no reasonably efficient method is known for computing the quantum value of a Bell inequality, so this quantity is estimated using the NPA hierarchy . Advanced users who want more control can specify which level of the NPA hierarchy to use, or even call the NPAHierarchy function directly themselves. There is also a closely-related function for computing the classical, quantum, or no-signalling value of a nonlocal game (in case you’re a computer scientist instead of a physicist).
Download and Documentation
QETLAB v0.8 is currently available at qetlab.com (where you will also find its documentation) and also on github. If you have any suggestions/comments/requests/anything, or if you have used QETLAB in your work, please let me know!
- C.H. Bennett, D.P. DiVincenzo, T. Mor, P.W. Shor, J.A. Smolin, and B.M. Terhal. Unextendible product bases and bound entanglement. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385–5388, 1999. E-print: arXiv:quant-ph/9808030
- M. Navascués, S. Pironio, and A. Acín. A convergent hierarchy of semidefinite programs characterizing the set of quantum correlations. New J. Phys., 10:073013, 2008. E-print: arXiv:0803.4290 [quant-ph]