## Approximating the Distribution of Schmidt Vector Norms

Recently, a family of vector norms [1,2] have been introduced in quantum information theory that are useful for helping classify entanglement of quantum states. In particular, the *Schmidt vector k-norm* of a vector v ∈ **C**^{n} ⊗ **C**^{n}, for an integer 1 ≤ k ≤ n, is defined by

In the above definition, SR(w) refers to the Schmidt rank of the vector w and so these norms are in some ways like a measure of entanglement for pure state vectors. One of the results of [2] shows how to compute these norms efficiently, so with that in mind we can perform all sorts of fun numerical analysis on them. Analytic results are provided in the paper, so I’ll provide more hand-wavey stuff and pictures here. In particular, let’s look at what the distributions of the Schmidt vector norms look like.

Figure 1 shows the distributions of the Schmidt 1 and 2 norms of unit vectors distributed according to the Haar measure in **C**^{3} ⊗ **C**^{3}, based on 5×10^{5} vectors generated randomly via MATLAB. Note that the Schmidt 3-norm just equals the standard Euclidean norm so it always equals 1 and is thus not shown. Figures 2 and 3 show similar distributions in **C**^{4} ⊗ **C**^{4} and **C**^{5} ⊗ **C**^{5}.

The following table shows various basic statistics about the above distributions. I suppose the natural next step is to ask whether or not we can analytically determine the distribution of the Schmidt vector norms. Since these norms are essentially just the singular values of an operator that is associated with the vector, it seems like this might even already be a (partially) solved problem, since many results are known about the distribution of the singular values of random matrices. The difficulty comes in trying to interpret the Haar measure (or any other natural measure on pure states, such as the Hilbert-Schmidt measure) on the associated operators.

Space | k | Mean | Median | Std. Dev. |
---|---|---|---|---|

C^{3} ⊗ C^{3} |
1 | 0.8494 | 0.8516 | 0.0554 |

2 | 0.9811 | 0.9860 | 0.0171 | |

C^{4} ⊗ C^{4} |
1 | 0.7799 | 0.7792 | 0.0501 |

2 | 0.9411 | 0.9435 | 0.0247 | |

3 | 0.9921 | 0.9943 | 0.0074 | |

C^{5} ⊗ C^{5} |
1 | 0.7240 | 0.7225 | 0.0444 |

2 | 0.8976 | 0.8987 | 0.0268 | |

3 | 0.9707 | 0.9722 | 0.0129 | |

4 | 0.9960 | 0.9971 | 0.0039 |

**References:**

- D. Chruscinski, A. Kossakowski, G. Sarbicki,
*Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses vs. bound entanglement*, Phys. Rev A**80**, 042314 (2009). arXiv:0908.1846v2 [quant-ph] - N. Johnston and D. W. Kribs,
*A Family of Norms With Applications in Quantum Information Theory*. Journal of Mathematical Physics**51**, 082202 (2010). arXiv:0909.3907 [quant-ph]

## Recent Comments