Laplacian {-1,0,1}- and {-1,1}-diagonalizable graphs


A graph is called “Laplacian integral” if the eigenvalues of its Laplacian matrix are all integers. We investigate the subset of these graphs whose Laplacian is furthermore diagonalized by a matrix with entries coming from a fixed set, with particular emphasis on the sets {-1,0,1} or {-1,1}. Such graphs include as special cases the recently-investigated families of “Hadamard-diagonalizable” and “weakly Hadamard-diagonalizable” graphs. As a combinatorial tool to aid in our investigation, we introduce a family of vectors that we call “balanced”, which generalize totally balanced partitions, regular sequences, and complete partitions. We show that balanced vectors completely characterize which graph complements and complete multipartite graphs are {-1,0,1}-diagonalizable, and we furthermore prove results on diagonalizability of the Cartesian product, disjoint union, and join of graphs. Particular attention is paid to the {-1,0,1}- and {-1,1}-diagonalizability of the complete graphs and complete multipartite graphs. Finally, we provide a complete list of all simple, connected graphs on nine or fewer vertices that are {-1,0,1}- or {-1,1}-diagonalizable.



Cite as:

  • N. Johnston and S. Plosker. Laplacian {-1,0,1}- and {-1,1}-diagonalizable graphs. E-print: arXiv:2308.15611 [math.CO], 2023.

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